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Computer Algorithms: Graph Breadth First Search

Introduction

Since we already know how to represent graphs, we can go further for some very simple approaches of walking through them. Passing by all the vertices of a graph is a fundamental technique for most of the graph algorithms, such as finding shortest/longest paths, etc.

First thing to note is that graphs are not trees, in most of the cases, so walking through them can’t start from a root, as we do with trees. What we must do first is to decide from where to start – in other words – choosing a starting vertex.

BFS Choosing a Starting Point
It’s clear that depending on the starting point we can get different passes through the graph. Thus choosing a starting point can be very important for our algorithm!

After that we need to know how to proceed. There are two approaches mostly known as “breadth first” and “depth first” search. While depth first search start from a vertex and goes as far as possible, then walks back and passes through vertices that haven’t been visited yet, breath first search is an approach of passing through all the neighbors of the node first, and then go to the next level.
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