Tag Archives: Directed acyclic graph

Computer Algorithms: Topological Sort Revisited

Introduction

We already know what’s topological sort of a directed acyclic graph. So why do we need a revision of this algorithm? First of all I never mentioned its complexity, thus to understand why we do need a revision let’s get again on the algorithm.

We have a directed acyclic graph (DAG). There are no cycles so we must go for some kind of order putting all the vertices of the graph in such an order, that if there’s a directed edge (u, v), u must precede v in that order.

Topological Sort
 

The process of putting all the vertices of the DAG in such an order is called topological sorting. It’s commonly used in task scheduling or while finding the shortest paths in a DAG.

The algorithm itself is pretty simple to understand and code. We must start from the vertex (vertices) that don’t have predecessors.

Topological Sort - step 1
 
Continue reading Computer Algorithms: Topological Sort Revisited

Computer Algorithms: Longest Increasing Subsequence

Introduction

A very common problem in computer programming is finding the longest increasing (decreasing) subsequence in a sequence of numbers (usually integers). Actually this is a typical dynamic programming problem.

Dynamic programming can be described as a huge area of computer science problems that can be categorized by the way they can be solved. Unlike divide and conquer, where we were able to merge the fairly equal sub-solutions in order to receive one single solution of the problem, in dynamic programming we usually try to find an optimal sub-solution and then grow it.

Once we have an optimal sub-solution on each step we try to upgrade it in order to cover the whole problem. Thus a typical member of the dynamic programming class is finding the longest subsequence.

However this problem is interesting because it can be related to graph theory. Let’s find out how. Continue reading Computer Algorithms: Longest Increasing Subsequence

Computer Algorithms: Shortest Path in a Directed Acyclic Graph

Introduction

We saw how to find the shortest path in a graph with positive edges using the Dijkstra’s algorithm. We also know how to find the shortest paths from a given source node to all other nodes even when there are negative edges using the Bellman-Ford algorithm. Now we’ll see that there’s a faster algorithm running in linear time that can find the shortest paths from a given source node to all other reachable vertices in a directed acyclic graph, also known as a DAG.

Because the DAG is acyclic we don’t have to worry about negative cycles. As we already know it’s pointless to speak about shortest path in the presence of negative cycles because we can “loop” over these cycles and practically our path will become shorter and shorter.

Negative Cycles
The presence of a negative cycles make our atempt to find the shortest path pointless!

Thus we have two problems to overcome with Dijkstra and the Bellman-Ford algorithms. First of all we needed only positive weights and on the second place we didn’t want cycles. Well, we can handle both cases in this algorithm. Continue reading Computer Algorithms: Shortest Path in a Directed Acyclic Graph

Computer Algorithms: Topological Sort of a Graph

Introduction

Let’s assume we have a list of tasks to accomplish. Some of the tasks depend on others, so we must be very careful with the order of their execution. If the relationship between these tasks were simple enough we could represent them as a linked list, which would be great, and we would know the exact order of their execution. The problem is that sometimes the relations between the different tasks are more complex and some tasks depend on two or more other tasks, which in their turn depend on one or more tasks, etc.

Thus we can’t model this problem using linked lists or trees. The only rational solution is to model the problem using a graph. What kind of graph do we need? Well, we definitely need a directed graph, to desribe the relations, and this graph shouldn’t have cycles. So we need the so called directed acyclic graph (DAG).

Topological Sort. Directed Graph.
In order to sort a graph using topological sort we need this graph to be acyclic and directed!

Why we don’t what a cycle in the graph? The answer of this question is simple and obvious. In case of cyclic graph, we wouldn’t be able to determine the priority of task execution, thus we won’t be able to sort the tasks properly.

Now the solution we want is to sort the vertices of the graph in some order so for each edge (u, v) u will precede v. Then we’ll have a linear order of all tasks and by starting their execution we’ll know that everything will be OK.

Topological Sort. Sort the vertices.
The output of topological sort should be a list of vertices!

This kind of sort is also known as “topological” sort (or topsort) and it is one of the very basic graph algorithms. Continue reading Computer Algorithms: Topological Sort of a Graph